During the cattle trail era from 1870 on, there were African-American peace officers serving in the western frontier of Texas, Kansas, New Mexico, and Colorado.
No part of the West was more of a legal and jurisdictional nightmare of criminals than in the Indian Territory.
Isaac Charles Parker, whose claim to fame was as the hanging judge, hired such men as "Bass Reeves", "Rufus Cannon", Zeke Miller, John Garret, Robert Fortune and others.
Many of the Lawmen had lived among the Indians and understood their language and customs, so they were more accepted by the Indians in the territory.
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